from this sourceDark matter, an enigmatic substance that makes up a significant portion of the universe's mass, continues to intrigue and challenge scientists worldwide. Although invisible and elusive, its gravitational effects provide evidence for its existence. In recent years, researchers have made substantial progress in unraveling the mysteries surrounding dark matter, both through observational discoveries and theoretical advancements. This article delves into the latest breakthroughs and insights that shed light on the nature and properties of dark matter. from this source from this sourceDark Matter: An Overview and Its Role in the Universe: from this sourceDark matter is a form of matter that does not interact with light or other electromagnetic radiation, making it difficult to detect directly. Despite its invisible nature, dark matter's gravitational effects play a crucial role in the formation of galaxies, the large-scale structure of the universe, and the observed rotational velocities of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Understanding dark matter is essential for comprehending the fundamental workings of the cosmos. from this source from this sourceObservational Discoveries and Detection Efforts: from this sourceScientists employ a variety of techniques to indirectly observe dark matter. Some of the recent observational discoveries and detection efforts include: from this source from this sourcea. Galactic Rotation Curves: Observations of galactic rotation curves provide evidence for the presence of dark matter. These curves depict the velocities of stars and gas within galaxies, indicating the presence of additional mass that cannot be accounted for by visible matter alone. from this source b. Gravitational Lensing: Dark matter's gravitational effects can bend and distort light, a phenomenon known as gravitational lensing. By studying the lensing effects on background galaxies, researchers can map the distribution of dark matter within galaxy clusters and gain insights into its properties. c. Direct and Indirect Detection Experiments: Scientists are conducting experiments to directly detect dark matter particles. These experiments involve ultra-sensitive detectors located deep underground to shield from cosmic rays. Additionally, efforts to indirectly detect dark matter particles are ongoing through the observation of high-energy cosmic rays and the search for particle decay or annihilation signatures. Theoretical Advances and Models: Numerous theoretical models have been proposed to explain the nature of dark matter. Some recent advancements and theories include: a. WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle): The most commonly studied dark matter candidate is the WIMP, which interacts weakly with ordinary matter. Experiments, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), aim to discover these particles through high-energy collisions. b. Axions: Axions are hypothetical particles that arise from extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. They are considered potential dark matter candidates due to their low mass and weak interactions. c. Self-Interacting Dark Matter: Recent theoretical studies suggest that dark matter particles could interact with each other through a new force, known as a "dark force." This self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) could explain certain discrepancies between simulations and observations of galaxy clusters. Open Questions and Future Directions: Despite the progress made, several questions surrounding dark matter remain unanswered. Scientists continue to explore new avenues and approaches to shed light on these mysteries. Some future directions include: a. Next-Generation Detectors: Ongoing advancements in detector technologies aim to improve sensitivity and expand the search for dark matter particles. Larger and more sophisticated experiments are being developed to increase the chances of detection. b. High-Energy Colliders: Experiments conducted at high-energy colliders, such as the LHC, seek to produce and study particles that may be associated with dark matter, providing insights into its properties and interactions. c. Theoretical Frameworks: Further development and refinement of theoretical models are crucial to narrow down the possibilities and guide experimental efforts. Continued collaboration between theorists and experimentalists is essential for progress

FAQs || District Union Cooperative


A cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.

co-operative federation is an apex body which all members are, in turn, co-operatives and their unions. Historically, co-operative federations have predominantly come in the form of cooperative wholesale societies and unions. Co-operative federations are a means through which co-operatives can fulfill the seven sixth cooperative principles, co-operation among co-operatives. The International Co-operative Alliance notes that “Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, national, regional and international structure.

A General Assembly is the highest policy-making body of the co-operatives, unions and federation, and is the final authority in the management and administration of the affairs. It is composed of members who are entitled to vote, duly assembled and constituting quorum. The general assembly holds at least one meeting a year; the date of the meeting is fixed in the bylaws.

The General Assembly has the following exclusive powers, which cannot be delegated:

  • To determine and approve amendments to the articles of organization and bylaws;
  • To elect or appoint the members of the board of directors, and to remove them for cause;
  • To approve developmental plans of the organization; and

Other matters requiring a 2/3 vote of all the members of the general assembly.

The principal deliberative body of the federation, in which each member union is represented and has one vote for the selection of leadership.

board of directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of an organization. Other names include. It is often simply referred to as “the board”.A board’s activities are determined by the powers, duties, and responsibilities delegated to it or conferred on it by an authority outside itself. These matters are typically detailed in the organization’s bylaws. The bylaws commonly also specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and when they are to meet. However, these bylaws rarely address a board’s powers when faced with a corporate turnaround or restructuring, where board members need to act as agents of change in addition to their traditional fiduciary responsibilities.  In an organization with voting members, the board acts on behalf of, and is subordinate to, the organization’s full group, which usually chooses the members of the board.Typical duties of boards of directors include:


  • Governing the organization by establishing broad policies and objectives;
  • Selecting, appointing, supporting and reviewing the performance of the general manager or chief executive;
  • Ensuring the availability of adequate financial resources;
  • Approving annual budgets;
  • Accounting to the stakeholders for the organization’s performance;
  • Setting the salaries and compensation of organization management.

All regular members who meet the qualification and none of the disqualification set by the laws of the organizations can be elected to the board of directors.

A meeting is a gathering of two or more people that has been convened for the purpose of achieving a common goal through verbal interaction, such as sharing information or reaching agreement. Meetings may occur face to face or virtually, as mediated by communications technology, such as a telephone conference call, a skyped conference call or a videoconference.

quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly or BODs necessary to conduct the business of that group. It also is defined by law as a simple majority of BODs and committees unless otherwise defined by applicable constitution, charter, rule or law. Subcommittees are subject to the same standard, even if the quorum for the subcommittee would not constitute a quorum for the parent body.